NASA launches spacecraft to study Moon's atmosphere
NASA has launched an unmanned spacecraft from Virginia that aims at unlocking the mysteries of Moon's atmosphere, a first moonshot from the state in the history of space exploration.
The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer or Ladee spacecraft, which is charged with studying the lunar atmosphere and dust, soared aboard an unmanned Minotaur rocket a little before midnight from from Wallops Island.
It was a change of venue for NASA, which normally launches moon missions from Cape Canaveral, Florida. But it provided a rare light show along the East Coast for those blessed with clear skies.
NASA expected the launch from Virginia's Eastern Shore to be visible, weather permitting, as far south as South Carolina, as far north as Maine and as far west as Pittsburgh.
The Ladee is taking a roundabout path to the moon, making three huge laps around Earth before getting close enough to pop into lunar orbit. Unlike the quick three-day Apollo flights to the moon, Ladee will need a full month to reach Earth's closest neighbour.
An Air Force Minotaur V rocket, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., provided the ride from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility.
Ladee, which is the size of a small car, is expected to reach the moon on October 6. Scientists want to learn the composition of the Moon's ever-so-delicate atmosphere and how it might change over time. Another puzzle, dating back decades, is whether dust actually levitates from the lunar surface.
The USD 280 million moon-orbiting mission will last six months and end with a suicide plunge into the moon for Ladee.
The 844-pound spacecraft has three science instruments as well as laser communication test equipment that could revolutionise data relay.
NASA hopes to eventually replace its traditional radio systems with laser communications, which would mean faster bandwidth using significantly less power and smaller devices. It was a momentous night for Wallops, which was making its first deep-space liftoff. All of its previous launches were confined to Earth orbit.
NASA chose Wallops for Ladee because of the Minotaur V rocket, comprised of converted intercontinental ballistic missile motors belonging to the Air Force.
A US-Russian treaty limits the number of launch sites because of the missile parts.All but one of NASA's previous moon missions since 1959, including the manned Apollo flights of the late 1960s and early 1970s, originated from Cape Canaveral.
The most recent were the twin Grail spacecraft launched almost exactly two years ago. The military-NASA Clementine rocketed away from Southern California in 1994.Wallops will be back in the spotlight in less than two weeks. The Virginia-based Orbital Sciences will make its first delivery to the International Space Station, using its own Antares rocket and Cygnus capsule. That commercial launch is scheduled for September 17.