66 years post-Independence, 59.4 percent rural Indians have no toilets
Data released by the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, showed "59.4 percent and 8.8 percent households in rural India and urban India, respectively, had no latrine facilities".
The survey collected information about sanitation facilities like availability of bathroom, and availability of latrine and its type, among others.
"Among the households having latrine facilities, 31.9 percent and 63.9 percent households in rural India and urban India, respectively, had access to its exclusive use. About 38.8 percent and 89.6 percent households in rural and urban India, respectively, had access to 'improved' type of latrine," the survey said.
The released data included the key indicators of drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and housing condition in India, generated from the data collected in the NSSO's 69th round survey from July 2012 to December 2012.
The survey covered the whole of the Indian Union. The key results of the survey are based on the central sample consisting of 4,475 villages in rural areas and 3,522 urban blocks spread over all states and union territories. The total number of households surveyed was 95,548 -- 53,393 in rural areas and 42,155 in urban areas.
Among rural households, 85.8 percent had sufficient drinking water and for urban India the corresponding figure was 89.6 percent, it showed.
On drinking water, information collected in the survey included sources and sufficiency of drinking water, distance to the source of drinking water and quality of drinking water.
Percentage of households which got drinking water facilities within premises was 46.1 percent in rural India and 76.8 percent in urban India.
The survey also said that 65.8 percent of rural households and 93.6 percent of urban households lived in a house with pucca structure while 24.6 percent of rural households and 5.0 percent of urban households lived in a house with semi-pucca structure during 2012.
"Eighty percent of rural households and 97.9 percent of urban households had electricity for domestic use," the data revealed.
It said only 10.8 percent of urban dwelling units were situated in slums.