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Probiotics not helpful for tots with co

lic

Researchers have found that Probiotics do not help infants with colic.Researchers based in Australia and Canada set out to determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri reduces crying or fussing in 167 breastfed and formula fed infants with colic aged less than three months old.

A total of 85 infants were randomised to receive the probiotic and 82 to receive placebo for one month. Outcomes included daily duration of crying or fussing at one month, sleep duration, mother’s mental health, family and infant quality of life.Levels of gut microbial diversity, faecal calprotectin (a marker of gut inflammation) and E coli colonisation were also examined.

The results show that the probiotic group fussed significantly more than the placebo group at all time points from day seven to one month. At one month, the probiotic group cried or fussed 49 minutes more than the placebo group. This increased fussing occurred only in formula fed infants. L reuteri did not affect crying or fussing time in exclusively breastfed infants.

L reuteri treatment did not lead to changes in infant faecal microbial diversity, E coli colonisation, or calprotectin levels.
Trials on Vitamin D inducing health benefits inconclusive

Researchers have said that many trials on vitamin D inducing health benefits are either inconclusive or insufficient to draw any firm conclusions.

The first, by researchers based in the UK, Europe and USA, examined data from observational studies and clinical trials (an umbrella review) to summarise health outcomes associated with vitamin D levels, both naturally circulating and as a result of taking supplements. Of a remarkable 137 different health outcomes reportedly linked to vitamin D, they found that only 10 had been thoroughly tested in trials, and only one (birth weight – linked to a mother's vitamin D levels in late pregnancy) had apparently concordant evidence of “benefit.”

In other words, the researchers failed to find any convincing evidence of a clear role of vitamin D for any of the outcomes.

Based on this review, they suggest a “probable” association between vitamin D levels and birth weight, dental caries in children, maternal vitamin D levels at term and parathyroid hormone levels in chronic kidney disease patients requiring dialysis, but “further studies and better designed trials are needed to draw further conclusions.”In the second paper, an international team led by researchers at the University of Cambridge and the Erasmus Medical Centre, analysed the extent to which vitamin D is associated with death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other conditions, under various circumstances.

They analysed the results of observational cohort studies and randomised controlled trials of both naturally circulating vitamin D and supplements (given singly as either vitamin D2 or D3 supplements). They found that low circulating vitamin D levels in blood were associated with increased mortality risks from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other causes.
Adults with cardiac risks to have worse cognitive function

Researchers have claimed that young adults with such cardiac risk factors as high blood pressure and elevated glucose levels have significantly worse cognitive function in middle age.

Kristine Yaffe, MD, a professor in the departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics at UCSF, who holds the Roy and Marie Scola Endowed Chair in Psychiatry, said that these cardiovascular risk factors are all quite modifiable.She said that they already know that reducing these risk factors in midlife can decrease the risk of dementia in old age, asserting that if it turns out that the damage begins before middle age, they may need to expand their focus and work on reducing heart disease risks in earlier stages of life.

The study examines data from more than 3,300 18- to 30-year-olds in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, which began enrolling thousands of participants nationwide in 1985 to understand how heart disease develops in black and white adults. Cardiac risk factors were measured every two to five years for 25 years, at which point those in the study underwent tests to measure their executive function, cognitive processing speed and verbal memory.

Those whose blood pressure and glucose exceeded recommended levels during the 25-year study performed worse on all three tests, while high cholesterol was associated only with poor verbal memory.

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