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Red wine could also help fight cavities

Researchers have said that red wine could help ward off dental diseases with fewer side effects.

M Victoria Moreno-Arribas and colleagues explain that dental diseases are extremely common throughout the world. Cavities, periodontal disease and tooth loss affect an estimated 60 to 90 per cent of the global population. The problems start when certain bacteria in the mouth get together and form biofilms, which are communities of bacteria that are difficult to kill. They form plaque and produce acid, which starts damaging teeth.

Brushing, fluoride in toothpaste and water and other methods can help get rid of bacterial plaques, but the effects are limited. In addition, currently used antimicrobial rinses can change the colour of the gums and alter taste, so people are less likely to use them for as long as they should. Some research has suggested that polyphenols, grape seed extract and wine can slow bacterial growth, so Moreno-Arribas’ team decided to test them under realistic conditions for the first time.

They grew cultures of bacteria responsible for dental diseases as a biofilm. They dipped the biofilms for a couple of minutes in different liquids, including red wine, red wine without the alcohol, red wine spiked with grape seed extract, and water and 12 per cent ethanol for comparison. Red wine with or without alcohol and wine with grape seed extract were the most effective at getting rid of the bacteria.
Circadian rhythms disruption lead to inflammatory disease

Researchers have said that a disruption of circadian rhythms, when combined with a high-fat, high-sugar diet, may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease and other harmful conditions.

Robin M Voigt, PhD, assistant professor at Rush Medical College and first author of the study, said circadian rhythms, which impose a 24-hour cycle on our bodies, are different from sleep patterns, adding that sleep is a consequence of circadian rhythms.

While circadian rhythm disruption may be common among some, the research suggests that it may be contributing to a host of diseases that may be prevented by regulating things such as sleep/wake patterns and times of eating to help prevent circadian rhythm disruption. Including prebiotics or probiotics in the diet can also help normalise the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiota to reduce the presence of inflammation. In the study, male mice had their cycles of exposure to light and dark reversed on a weekly basis, an experience that is known to disrupt an organism’s innate circadian rhythm. Some of the mice ate standard food; others ate a high-fat, high-sugar diet.

Microbiota of the mice that had their circadian rhythms disrupted were significantly different from that of the  control group — but only if they had consumed the high-fat, high-sugar diet.

All the mice that ate the high-fat, high-sugar diet displayed changes in the makeup of the microorganisms in their guts, regardless of circadian status. However, mice that ate the high-fat, high-sugar diet, and had circadian-rhythm disruptions, had higher concentrations of bacteria that are known to promote inflammation than any of the other mice in the study.

Disrupting the circadian rhythms of the mice fed standard chow did not significantly affect the microbiota in their intestines.
Nasal spray may soon replace pills to deliver drugs to brain

Researchers have said that when it comes to brain diseases pills are actually an extremely ineffecient way to deliver drugs to the brain.

Massimiliano Di Cagno, assistant professor at the Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, said people with brain diseases are often given huge amounts of unnecessary drugs. During a long life, or if you have a chronic disease, this may become problematic for your health. 

He and his colleagues at University of Southern Denmark and Aalborg University have turned their attention to the nose - specifically the nasal wall and the slimy mucosa that covers it. As we know from eg. cocaine addicts, substances can be assimilated extremely quickly and directly through the nose. But many medical substances, however, need help to be transported through the nasal wall and further on to the relevant places in the brain.

The vehicles for drug delivery through the nose are typically made of so called polymers. A polymer is a large molecule composed of a large number of repeats of one or more types of atoms. Polymers can be natural or synthetic, simple or complex.

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