India snared both of Australia's openers after falling cheaply in their first innings as six wickets tumbled in day two's opening session of the day-night Test in Adelaide on Friday.
Jasprit Bumrah claimed both Australian wickets leg before wicket, with Matthew Wade and Joe Burns both out for eight despite reviews.
At the break, Australia were two for 35, 209 runs behind India who finished on 244. Marcus Labuschagne was on 16 with Steve Smith on one.
Labuschagne had to work hard and his first runs came from an edge which fell just short of the wicketkeeper and went through to the boundary.
Just before lunch he was dropped by Bumrah on the boundary.
Bumrah, whose bowling could not be faulted, had figures of two for eight off eight overs.
Umesh Yadav, while wicketless, had four maidens in his six-over spell.
Australia needed just 25 deliveries to take the final four India wickets and wrap up their first innings at the start of the day.
It continued a disappointing run for India after reaching a promising 188 for three.
The wicket of Virat Kohli, who was run out on Thursday, ignited a collapse that saw their last seven wickets fall for 56 runs.
After India resumed on 233 for three on Friday, Mitchell Starc and Pat Cummins shared the final four dismissals with two apiece.
Cummins removed Ravi Ashwin for his overnight 15 with the third ball of the morning, and Starc saw off Wriddhiman Saha in the following over for nine, both caught behind by Tim Paine.
Yadav skied a full-length Starc delivery and was well caught by Matthew Wade at mid-on, and Mohammed Shami fended a rising Cummins delivery to Travis Head at short leg.
Starc finished with four for 53 while Cummins took three for 48.