Recalling major constitutional changes in last one year

On Republic Day, recap of major constitutional changes in last one year

On this Republic Day let us recall the five major constitutional changes since last year

 Around 4000 students from Zeal Education Society hold placards to form a huge Indian national flag, in Pune, Maharashtra, Saturday, Jan. 25, 2020. (PTI Photo)

Republic Day is celebrated on January 26 every year since 1950 to celebrate the implementation of Constitution of India.

The Constitution of India has been amended many times since its inception. In the past one year many landmark changes happened in the constitution that tells about the socio-political drift of the country. 

On this Republic Day let us recall the five major constitutional changes since last year.

Revocation of Article 377: 

India stood up against homophobia by removal of Article 377, which criminalized homosexuality. Earlier, under Article 377 homosexuality was considered as unnatural and a punishible offence, but after its abrogation, India legalised homosexuality and hence, showing its acceptance towards lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) community. 

Abrogation of Article 370: 

Since the administration of Jammu and Kashmir came under India in 1954, the state was given a special status under Article 370 of the constitution. But in October 2019, the Parliament abrogated Article 370. Simultaneously, it also changed the status of J&K from state to Union Territory and bifurcated it into J&K and Ladakh.

Decriminalisation of extra-marital affair:

Earlier if a lady had a sexual relationship outside marriage without the permission of her husband, then her lover would be punished. But after the revocation of Article 497, adultery became permissible but can still be a ground for divorce. 

Citizenship Amendment Act: 

One of the most controversial Bill passed in the parliament that caused chaos across the country is Citizenship Amendment Act. This Act gives citizenship to all the migrants from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan who came to India before 2014 and are either Hindu, Budhist, Jain, Christian, Sikh or Parsi. The amendment has caused many protests across nation either in favour or against the Act.

Personal data protection Bill 2019:

Another controversial Bill passed in the winter session of Parliament was Personal Data Protection Bill. This Bill governs the processing of personal data by: (i) government, (ii) companies incorporated in India, and (iii) foreign companies dealing with personal data of individuals in India.  This Bill categorises certain personal data as sensitive personal data which includes financial data, biometric data, caste, religious or political beliefs, or any other category of data specified by the government.