The highs and lows

Nathu La Pass Reopened for border trade in 2006. *Dec 30, 1949: India recognises the People's Republic of China; only the second non-Communist country to do so

1954: India and China sign Panchsheel. In June, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai visits India. In October, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru returns the visit, signs a Sino-India trade agreement.

*Nov 1956: Zhou Enlai visits India on goodwill mission.

*1959: In January, Zhou Enlai spells out China's claim to 40,000 square miles of Indian territory in Ladakh and the Northeast. On April 3, the Dalai Lama escapes from Lhasa. India grants him asylum.

*Apr 19, 1960: Nehru and Zhou meet in New Delhi. Deadlock over boundary issue. A year later, China occupies 12,000 square miles in the western sector. India establishes a few border posts in Ladakh.

*1962: In Oct, China attacks from Northeast to Ladakh. In Nov, captures Tawang, Bomdila plus Walong in the west. On Nov 21, announces unilateral ceasefire, withdraws 20 km behind Line of Actual Control. On Dec 8, India accepts China's three-point ceasefire formula.

*1963: Pakistan cedes 5,080 sq km of PoK territory—in Aksai Chin—to China
*Apr 1976: Diplomatic representation, both in India and China, raised to the ambassadorial level after a 15-year gap.

*1986: Differences surface over the McMahon Line in the Sumdorung Chu area of Arunachal Pradesh

*Dec 1988: Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visits China. Both countries to set up a joint working group (JWG) on the boundary question; and on economic relations, trade, science & technology.

*Dec 1991: Chinese premier Li Peng visits India, promises to resolve the boundary question through consultations

*Sept 1993: Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao visits China, signs an agreement on the maintenance of peace and tranquility along the LAC.

*Nov 1996: Chinese President Jiang Zemin visits India, signs an agreement on CBMS in the military field along the LAC.

*1998 India conducts nuclear tests. Beijing strongly condemns Pokhran II.

*2002: On Jan 6, the inaugural Shanghai-Beijing-New Delhi direct passenger flight takes off. Chinese premier Zhu Rongji arrives on Jan 13.

*Jun 2003: Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee visits Beijing. India and China agree to appoint special representatives who are to explore a political framework for resolving the boundary issue.

*Apr 2005: Chinese premier Wen Jiabao visits India. India and China agree on political parameters and guiding principles for the India-China boundary issue; establish a strategic cooperative partnership for peace and prosperity. India accepts Tibet as part of China; Sikkim accepted as Indian state.

*Dec 2010: Wen revisits India.

Clear and present danger

Managing India-China ties

Of erasing ‘scratches on our minds’

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