"It would be a very serious mistake fraught with unpredictable consequences," Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said after a warning by Israeli President Shimon Peres that an attack was increasingly likely.
"Military intervention only leads to a multiple rise in casualties and human suffering," said Lavrov.
"There can be no military solution to the Iranian nuclear problem, just like there can be none for any other problem in the modern world."
Israel's warning came ahead of this week's expected presentation on a new report from the UN nuclear watchdog on Iran's nuclear drive.
Russia has urged Iran to improve its nuclear programme transparency while trying to shield its Soviet-era ally from the most damaging sanctions and possible threat of war.
Lavrov said current military campaigns such as the one being waged by NATO in Afghanistan proved the dangers of foreign involvement.
"The use of force is only possible under two circumstances envisioned by the UN Charter," said Lavrov.
"Either through self defence, when you come under armed attack, or through a decision by the UN Security Council."