Award-winning scientist Raymond Kurzweil, 62, told 500 guests at a sponsored 'Future talk' event in Vienna, Austria, that the human brain backup was now already technically possible.
Kurzweil has notched up a string of pioneering computer inventions, including voice recognition technology, during his career, reports the Daily Mail.
"I believe that within the next 20 years we will have thousands of nanobot computer machines in our blood that will heal our bodies, improve our performance, and even be able to back up all the contents of our brains, just as you backup your files on a computer," he said.
"That means they would back up every thought, every experience, everything that makes us an individual."
"It may sound far-fetched but in the early 1980s, people thought I was crazy for predicting the emergence of the world wide web by the middle of the 1990s; but it happened, and on the schedule I predicted."
At the age of 15, Kurzweil created a programme that could recreate music in the style of the great composers, which earned him a visit to the White House and an interview with President Lyndon B. Johnson.
He also built the first machine that could read written speech for the blind for his friend Stevie Wonder - for whom he also later made a revolutionary musical synthesizer capable of recreating sounds of real instruments.Kurzweil has 19 honorary doctorates and now advises governments, scientists, military and business people across the world on a variety of technology-related issues.