Lok Sabha Speaker Meira Kumar is likely to call a meeting of opposition leaders later to defuse the crisis.
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Murli Manohar Joshi moved an adjournment motion for suspension of Question Hour in the Lok Sabha.
Convenor of the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) Sharad Yadav demanded that the government roll back its decision.
“This issue is not just confined to parliament, it concerns the whole nation,” he told reporters outside parliament.
The Left parties are supporting the BJP on the issue.
The Congress tried to counter the opposition attack by saying “the issue should be discussed in parliament instead of disrupting it”.
“The opposition should raise the issue in the house and discuss it,” Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs Rajeev Shukla told reporters after the adjournment.
Earlier, Speaker Meira Kumar had to adjourn the lower house till noon after members started shouting slogans soon after the sitting began at 11 a.m. Some MPs also protested over the Mullaperiyar dam issue.
The Rajya Sabha was also adjourned till Tuesday over the FDI issue.
AIADMK's Rajya Sabha member V. Maitreyan moved an adjournment motion asking for a discussion on the FDI under a rule which entails voting.
“We want the issue to be discussed. We want voting on it. We believe the government will lose if voting takes place in the house,” Maitreyan told reporters outside parliament.
The BJP believes that allowing FDI in retail will adversely affect the services and manufacturing sectors of the Indian economy. The party also thinks the move would result in loss of jobs in the name of removing middlemen.
BJP leader Shahnawaz Hussain said the government deliberately brought in the issue at a time when the opposition was united over the issues of price rise and black money.
"Why did the government approve FDI in retail now?" Hussain asked, talking reporters outside parliament.